Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh

Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh stands on the Edinburgh Castle Rock, formed over 300 million years ago by volcanic eruptions. The first evidence of inhabitants on the Edinburgh Castle Rock was in the Bronze Age circa 1500 BC. Furthermore, evidence of an Iron Age fort has been unearthed dated circa 90 BC. First of all there are writings about a fortress on Edinburgh Castle Rock circa 600 AD in a poem Gododdin. The Poem tells of the Gododdin a race of warriors who lived in the south-east of Scotland and north-east of England. They left the fortress of Din Eiden (Edinburgh) and went from the castle to do battle with the Angles of Northumbria. Finally, the Gododdin were wiped out and the Angles of Northumbria took control of the area.

Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh 1000 – 1400

Consequently, the next ruler Malcolm II took over control of the area in 1016 at the Battle of Carham. He extended the borders of Scotland to the River Tweed as Northumbria covered as for as the River Forth. Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh, originally built of wood by Malcolm III circa 1070 and then built of stone by King David I circa 1130. Also building a small Chapel for his mother Margaret which still remains in tact. As a result it is now the oldest surviving building in Edinburgh Castle.

Edinburgh Castle English Rule

The occupation of Edinburgh Castle in 1296 by Edward I of England lasted until early 1314 when the Scots led by Thomas Randolph – First earl of Moray. Who recaptured Edinburgh Castle for the Scots. In 1335 the English under Edward III took it back until 1341 when William Douglas regained it for the Scots. In 1361 David II strengthened the fortifications of Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh and built a tower said to be over 80 foot high. Consequently it was destroyed in the Lang Siege. There is little left still visible except underground chambers.

Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh 1400 – Present

Mons Meg a gigantic Belgian canon was delivered to Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh in 1457 as a gift to King James II which can still be seen today. The Canon Mons Meg has not fired since 1681. David’s Tower was destroyed in the Lang Siege in May 1573. Edinburgh Castle was left in ruins and very little of the original Edinburgh Castle fortress remains from before that date.

Edinburgh Castle Rebuilding

The rebuilding of Edinburgh Castle started almost immediately after Edinburgh Castle being taken by the English in 1573. A new portcullis Gate and the rebuilding of David’s Tower, with the Half-Moon battery, still can be seen today. The last King to stay at Edinburgh Castle was Charles I in 1633 before his coronation. In 1650 Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh was once again under attack by the English led by Oliver Cromwell. After several months of siege, Edinburgh Castle was surrendered to Oliver Cromwell and the English forces. Finally, when Charles II was restored as King, he set up an army garrison in Edinburgh Castle that remained until the 1920s.

Edinburgh Attraction

Finally from circa 1920 Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh has become a tourist attraction. Consequently, people have made Edinburgh Castle from circa 1833 a popular place to visit . It is now one of the world’s most visited attractions. 

Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh from Princes Street with Scots Grey's Horse MemorialEdinburgh Castle Edinburgh 

When you visit Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh you can see Mons Meg, the Regimental Museums and the Crown Jewels. 

Edinburgh Castle Esplanade  

Edinburgh Castle Esplanade the area for four weeks of the year the world famous Edinburgh Military Tattoo his held during the month of  August which is the main showcase of Edinburgh. This is when The Fringe Festival and Edinburgh International Festival takes place and tourists from around the world can be seen in their 100s of thousands. Looking around the Esplanade you can see memorials, statues and plaques to the regiments and heroes of the past battles. There is one obelisk, one statue, 3 plaques, 3 crosses, a wall fountain and hero  Ensign Ewart’s grave.   Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh Castle Esplanade

Castlehill Royal Mile Edinburgh 

When you visit Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh. Firstly, you will have to walk up Castlehill a short road from the Hub to Edinburgh Castle Esplanade. The Gothic spire being the highest point in central Edinburgh. Constructed between 1842 and 1845, now the headquarters of the Edinburgh International Festival society. The other attractions in the street are the Camera Obscura & World of Illusions, (One of the oldest tourist attractions in the city). Cannonball House, Witches Well, No.1 Ramsay Lane the first Ragged School. The Scotch Whisky Experience and Scottish Weaving Mill. Castlehill Royal Mile Edinburgh

Lawnmarket Royal Mile Edinburgh

On your visit to Edinburgh Castle the first street in the Royal Mile is the Lawnmarket Edinburgh, the street where the linen market was. Going down the hill on the left is the preserved 17th century townhouse Gladstone’s Land. The south side has a strong Dutch influence. Lady Stair’s House is where the Writer’s Museum is, the High Court on the left with a Statue of David Hume Scottish philosopher, historian and economist outside. Directly opposite is the site of the last public hanging. See the plaque and cobbles. Do not miss Riddles Court and the first public library, and the notorious Deacon Brodie. Edinburgh's Royal Mile Lawnmarket looking towards Edinburgh Castle

High Street Royal Mile Edinburgh 

The High Street is in two sections. The upper section starts at St Giles Street where the Lawnmarket ends and finishes at the Tron Kirk at the intersection of the North and South Bridges. This is the most popular area as it has been pedestrianised and there are a lot of interesting things to see and do also where most tour buses leave from in the early morning.   Upper High Street Royal Mile Tron Kirk in Distance

Royal Mile, High Street, Edinburgh (Upper section)

Royal Mile, High Street, Edinburgh (Upper section) starts at the Lawnmarket and the Canongate. There are many interesting and famous places that can be seen. Parliament House, Charles II Statue, Heart of Midlothian, St Giles Cathedral, John Knox Statue and grave, Mercat Cross, Advocates Close, City Chambers, Real Mary Kings Close, Tron Kirk, Mowbray House, The Storytelling Centre, John Knox House, The Trinity Apse Church and Museum of Childhood to list a few. lower High Street Royal Mile Edinburgh  

Royal Mile High Street Edinburgh (Lower section).

The Royal Mile High Street is intersected at the crossroads of the North and South Bridge and continues down to where Old Edinburgh ended at the junction of St Mary Street and Jeffrey Street where there was once a gate in the Flodden wall which protected Edinburgh from invaders.     

Canongate Royal Mile Edinburgh

The Canongate in the Royal Mile Edinburgh is named after the canons of Holyrood. Canon after the Canon’s of Holyrood Abbey and the Scots word gait meaning “road”. The Canongate is a small district at the heart of Edinburgh. The main street running through the area is called Canongate. The street forms the lower part of the Royal Mile Edinburgh’s historic Old Town. Until formal incorporation into Edinburgh in 1856 the Canongate was a  separate Burgh, not part of Edinburgh. Look for the sites of The Girth Cross, Canongate Kirk, Dunbar Gardens, Shoemakers’ Hall Bible Land, Morocco Land, Golfers Land the statue of Robert Fergusson (Robert Burns inspiration) that stands outside the Canongate Kirk. Looking up the Canongate from the Canongate Tolbooth Edinburgh

Royal Mile Abbey Strand Edinburgh

Abbey Strand is a short street that is directly in front of Holyrood House (Palace). This is the Queen’s official residence in Scotland and was built in 1498 by James IV. Cromwell’s troops on leaving Holyrood Palace set it alight and it burned down on November of 1650. This was said to be an accident. The Tower of James V being the only part of the Palace of Holyrood House that survived. The present Palace foundations were laid in 1671 and the rebuild completed in 1674, the new occupants took up residency at the end of 1679. The then Duke of Albany and Duke of York with his family. Duke of Albany and Duke of York was later to be James II of England and VII of Scotland and family.     Looking from the foot of the Royal Mile Canongate down Abbey Strand and the gates of Holyrood House Palace Edinburgh

Royal Mile Horse Wynd Edinburgh

Horse Wynd Edinburgh was the first part of the road to London. This is where the Royal Coaches started their journey south to London. The journey would take approximately 13 days. In contrast to the Palace is the site of the new Scottish Parliament building, continue round and you will arrive in the Queens Park where Arthur Seat stands. Horse Wynd Royal Mile Edinburgh

Arthur Seat and The Queens Park Edinburgh

Firstly, Arthur’s Seat in Gaelic was originally pronounced ARD – NA – SAID   Arthur Seat was a volcano that has shaped the land of Edinburgh for over 1000 years. Arthur Seat rises above the city to a height of 822 feet and provides excellent panoramic views of the city. It is a favourite place for visitors to climb as it is relatively easy to climb and is popular for hill walking. You can climb Arthur Seat from almost any direction.

Easy Way Up Arthur Seat

The easiest way to the to is from the east at Duddingston Gates. You firstly climb steps to a road, then a grassy slope rises above Dunsapie Loch to the summit. The Radical Road is a footpath which will take you along the top of the slope immediately under Salisbury Crags which has long been a popular walk, giving a view over the city. It became known as the Radical Road after it was paved in the aftermath of the Radical War of 1820.

Things to See on Arthur Seat

There are three lochs that surround Arthur’s seat. Duddingston Loch, Dunsapie Loch and St Margaret’s Loch. St Margaret’s Loch, where you can feed the birds. Climb to St Anthony’s Chapel and St Anthony’s well which is said to give good fortune.  There is a road that runs around the hill and you can see the three lochs. St Anthony’s Chapel Stands on The Fairies or Haggis Knowe overlooking St Margaret’s Loch. The beacon was put at the top of the hill in 1688.  When visiting Edinburgh Castle there are views for miles in all directions. 

Orsan Pratt and Arthur Seat

Arthur’s Seats has a particular significance to the history of the Church of the Latter-Day Saints. The nation of Scotland was dedicated in 1840 for the preaching of the gospel. The apostle Orsan Pratt of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (The Mormons). First of all he arrived in Scotland in early 1840. He climbed the hill to pray to god for more converts.

Arthur Seat South side, The 800 ft (245 metres.) Volcano in the Centre of Edinburgh Arthur Seat East Face with Portobello beach and the Firth of Forth at foot of Hill

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